When Chris Argyris died in 2013, aged 90, he left us a treasure of ideas and understanding that informs some of today's great organisational thinkers. A longtime Harvard Business School professor, and researcher for more than four decades, Argyris was a leading light in the development of business thinking and education. But his work informs all of us who are committed to encouraging learning from experience, transferring knowledge into meaningful action, and making learning a core value and priority of organisations. Here is a collection of his published papers.
Chris Argyris, Bibliography of Works
The individual and organization: An empirical test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 4(2), 146-167.
Organizational health and executive development. Advanced Management, 24(12), 8-11.
Creating effective research relationships in an organization. Human Organization, 17(1), 34-40.
Some problems in conceptualizing organizational climate: A case study of a bank. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(4), 501-520.
The organization: What makes it healthy? Harvard Business Review, 36(6), 107-116.
Management implications of recent social science research. Personnel Administration, 21(3), 5-10.
Personality and organizations; the conflict between system and the individual. New York: HarperCollins.
The individual and organization: Some problems of mutual adjustment. Administrative Science Quarterly, 2(1), 1-24.
Diagnosing human relations in organizations; a case study of a hospital. New Haven, CN: Yale University Labor and Management Center.
Research trends in executive behavior. Advanced Management, 21(3), 6-9.
Some unsolved problems of executive development programs. Journal of Educational Sociology, 30(1), 20-30.
Organizational leadership and participative management. Journal of Business, 28(1), 1-7.
Top management dilemma: Company needs vs. individual development. Personnel, 32(2), 123-134.
Organization of a bank: A study of the nature of organization and the fusion process. New Haven, CN: Yale University Labor and Management Center.
Organizational structure and dynamics. New Haven, CN: Yale University Labor and Management Center. (Bakke, E. W.)
The fusion of an individual with the organization. American Sociological Review, 19(3), 267-272.
Leadership pattern in the plant. Harvard Business Review, 32(1), 63-70.
Human relations in a bank. Harvard Business Review, 32(5), 63-72.
Executive leadership: An appraisal of a manager in action. New York: Harper and Brothers.
An introduction to field theory and interaction theory. New Haven, CN: Yale University Labor and Management Center.
Some characteristics of successful executives. Personnel Journal, 32(3), 50-55.
Human problems with budgets. Harvard Business Review, 31(1), 97-110.
Personality fundamentals for administrators: An introduction for the layman. New Haven, CN: Yale University Labor and Management Center.
Diagnosing defenses against the outsider. Journal of Social Issues, 8(3), 1-10.
Impact of budgets on people. New York: Controllership Foundation. (F. Miller).
The member-centered conference as a research method: I. Human Organization, 9(4), 5-14. (Taylor, G.)
The member-centered conference as a research method: II. Human Organization, 10(1), 22-27. (Taylor, G.)
A note on research technique: The flow chart. Human Organization, 10(4), 37-38.
Other Possible Articles
The following articles appear in a bibliography compiled by The Leadership Institute of Seattle but their existence has not been confirmed.
Seeking truth and actionable knowledge: how the scientific method inhibits both. Philosophica, 1987, volume 40, pages 5-21.
Can research reinvent the corporation. Harvard Business Review, March-April, 1991, volume 69, number 2, page 164 (10 pages).
Media and their credibility under scrutiny. Nieman Reports, Winter, 1989, volume 43, number 4, page 31 (3 pages).
Chris Argyris and Donald Schön distinguish three levels of “learning” within organizations: 1. Single loop learning-This form of learning aims at solving the increasing changes and the problems that have risen as a consequence of this. However, this ignores the real cause of the problem. 2. Double loop learning-This form of learning will go more deeply into the cause of the problem and feedback is used to look at past actions. What were the considerations of the people involved in action? What went well and what should be improved? 3. Deutero learning-At this stage, levels 1 and 2 are combined with the aim of improving awareness and learning. People learn from the mistakes of the present and the past and they must be capable of admitting this. In terms of leadership, Double Loop Learning means ensuring first, through examining world views and values, that we focus first on doing the RIGHT THINGS, and through Single Loop Learning, we then make sure we are doing those important THINGS RIGHT.